Submitted by Linda Manlove
Mark D. Manlove age 23
John N. Manlove age 22
Two brothers who made the overland trip to California, were asked to write an account of this trip fifty-five years later. They each wrote in their own style, neither having made any notes as he made the journey so long ago. The older brother Jonathan made the trip at the same time in the same company but was unable at this time to write, being in poor health.
Feb. 25, 1904
As requested I will now give you a brief outline of the trip across the plains to California. In the year 1849 we left Shawnee the last of March, took a steam boat to Attica and went to Evansville, there changed to another boat and went to St. Louis. We stayed there a week or two, bought our mules and other outfit for the Plains, then went up the Missouri River by boat, which had many mishaps on the way, but were finally safely landed at St. Joe, Mo. It was too early in the spring to start across the plains, so we camped there for several weeks. St. Joe was a lively town that year. There were hundreds of people camped there a month before the grass was good on the plains. There were all kinds of people from all parts of the country; gamblers, thieves and a few honest men. Large droves of mules were landed there, and all matter of fitting material for the plains. Old trappers, Indian traders and fighters were there and you would hear the plains talked of morning, noon and night. A great many went back from there. Some got discouraged over the prospect of a hard trip. Some got drunk and fooled away their money and some went back to their sweethearts. There were some companies that had been made up in eastern cities that had never been used to handling mules and breaking them, it was better than a theatre. I recollect one company in particular that had been made up in Cinncinati, they each paid $300.00 dollars and three men were to take the money, manage the whole affair, pay all the bills and have whatever was left for their trouble. They bought a boatload of unbroken mules to commence with, then quarrled and the company broke up, most of them losing their $300.00. People never fully know each other until they have lived in camp together.
Finally the time came to start. There were three brothers of us, and one wagon, three men from St. Louis, splendid fellows that we had got acquainted with. They had a first class outfit. So we started together. They were loaded too heavy and couldn't handle their team very well, so they stuck in the mud at every slough we came too. We helped them the best we could, but at night we were only four miles from where we had started in the morning. The next day they got on but a little better. In the afternoon they stuck in the mud, let the team swing around and broke their wagon. So they told us to go on and they would give up and not go to California. So, we went on alone up the Missouri River, on the north side of Savannah Landing, fourteen miles below Council Bluff. We crossed the river on a good ferry, from there on we were in the red man's country and had to watch our mules continually to keep the Indians from stealing them.
Fifty miles out from the river, we joined a company from St. Louis that we had arranged to go with. They had started from another point on the frontier. It was now the 17th of May, 1849. Here we took into our mess Harvey MELVANY, later he was Judge Melvany, and was a man of much notoriety in southern Illinois in the "sixties". There were now four of us to one wagon. We had made the mistake of nearly everybody. That of buying twice as much as we needed of everything and many things we did not need at all which made our load too heavy. We were now in a company of fifty or sixty men. We organized by electing a captain, and started promptly the next morning. All were heavily loaded, the roads were bad. We went very slow. Some one's team would stick in the mud in almost every slough. We had frequent rains. After we had been out about a week there came a violent storm at night. It blew down the tents and wet things generally. Next morning the thermometer was down to freezing and the wind blew at a rate of thirty-five miles per hour. There was no wood in camp and no timber in sight. We didn't have the least bit of a wind break and the mules and horses were almost chilled to death. They were so cold they could hardly eat. There were many long faces and no comforts in camp. About nine o'clock six of us volunteered to go after wood. We went off on foot six miles to a cedar canyon and got back to camp about two o'clock each of us carrying a big load of dry cedar. The wind had slackened a little so we fixed up a wind break, built a big fire, had a good dinner. Everyone got dry and all felt better. Next morning we started off in good shape and spirits, about ten o'clock we came to a stream that in ordinary times was so small that our printed guide book did not mention it, but the first team that crossed had two horses drowned. We pulled the other four out and saved them. That afternoon we were able to cross and go on. We were now traveling up Platte River on the south side. The Platte bottems are from one to ten miles wide and as level as a floor. The river is as wide as the Mississippi, very shallow, swift and muddy. The water seemed to be full of moving sand. We were now in sight of Chimney Rock which can be seen from a long distance. That evening a lone buffalo crossed the river in sight of our camp. Some of the boys chased him round two or three miles and finally killed him close to camp. Game was very plentiful. We seen antelope and wolves every day and buffalo signs continuously.
Near the Platte River is a large Pawnee village. They built the best winter quarters of any Indian on the Plains using timbers and covering them with dirt. There was a patch of cornstalks here, which was the only sign of Indian farming that I saw the whole trip. The village was deserted as the Pawnees were all hiding from a large number of Sioux warriors who were scouring the country bragging that they were going to kill all the Pawnees that were left. The Pawnees and Sioux have always been enemies but both claim friendship for the Whites. Some of the immigrants found a young Pawnee that was nearly starved to death. They tried to feed it, but it would not eat but tried to get away all the time, the same as a wild animal.
Chimney Rock is several miles off, south of the road . When we got opposite it one morning, I, with several others went out there. It is composed of soft rock, the seams running straight up and down. It has once been a high mountain peak that has raised out of the plains and the side have tumbled down and left the center standing.
By hard traveling we reached camp that night. Some men from an Iowa company went out to Chimney Rock, and as they were almost to return to camp a storm came up. One man stopped and took off his clothes to take a shower bath. It turned out to be hail instead of rain, and as he was in sight of the camp he went by the name "Shower Bath" from that time on. We got across the south Platte without much trouble and traveled on the south side of the North Platte. The roads were good. In fact, there was no mud on the road to California except on the first part. Fort Laramie is the next point of note, which we reached without anything of consequence taking place.
Fort Laramie is a Trader's fort, built by traders and trappers for protection against the Indians. It is built of sun-dried brick eight or ten feet high, four square like a Mexican Hacienda taking on ground enough so that the dwellings and stores are all built on the inside. The stock also is penned outside when there is no danger The stock at the Fort had been grazed on the range, had not been fed and were in good condition. Going next from the Mississippi one comes to grass of different kind and quality from the grass in Illinois. It contains it's strength better through the winter. From the Missouri River to this point the road is strewn with flour, bacon, mining tools, cooking utensils, sheet iron, stoves, horseshoes, kegs of powder, quantities of lead and all other things connected with an outfit. People are just beginning to be in traveling shape. There are still lots of people turning back. The company that we started with had split up and separated a few days after we started, our part consisting of three wagons, of these three had dropped out at different times, our three staying together from Fort Laramie to South Parr.
After we left Fort Laramie we went over thirty or forty miles of country different from anything we had ever seen. Old trappers called it Black Hills. It is rolling, the hills covered with small pines and no underbrush with rattling streams, between the hills running over graveled beds, the prettiest place in America. When we got to the place to cross the North Platte, the chances for crossing were not so good. The water was deep, swift, and cold and there was no ferry.
Finally we hired a big canoe for the use of which we paid three dollars apiece for each wagon. We took the wagons to pieces; took them, the harness and the other outfit across in the canoes; floated the wagon beds and swam the horses. We got to the crossing about 10 o'clock and as there was no grass there for our horses and mules, two others and myself took them off south about two miles to graze and were to fetch them back the next day. About sundown a young man came out from camp and said they had sent him to stay with the horses and they wanted me to come in and help them to cross the river. He brought no gun and I had to let him have mine. It clouded up and rained soon after I started and was very dark. After awhile I could hear a footstep behind me in the puddles of water. I had a first class hunting knife and was holding it in my hand. Finally a big wolf howled about fifty yards away and then they howled all around me, five or six of them. That partly relieved the strain for I knew wolves are not dangerous unless they were starving., but it is not nice to have them around in the dark. Three wagons traveled together up the North Platte. We passed a curiosity and that was covered over with a yellow moss six inches deep. Under that was ice six inches thick. The weather was quite warm, but still the ice remained and probably would remain all the year. We saw some signs of mountain sheep on the North Platte, but they kept out of sight. I never saw but one mountain sheep on the whole trip. It was killed and much larger than a domestic sheep. It looked like it would weigh three hundred pounds. We left North Platte and followed up Sweetwater to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. We went about a mile further and camped at what is called Pacific Springs.
Here is the celebrated South Pass which was discovered by Lewis and Clark. It is considered a great natural curiosity. It is a plain thirty miles wide that extends over the summit of the Rocky Mountains. It is level enough for farming land. We left our wagons here, bought another mule and packed the balance of our trip. We took pieces of the wagons and rigged up pack saddles, also such things as we were obliged to have and left the rest. We stayed at the springs one day to make our saddles. Next morning they all started on account of the scarcity of grass. Mark and I remained to sort the things, pack the mules and follow. Among other things to be thrown away was a keg of powder. Someone had been taking our powder and had spilled some around and under the keg and the keg was left open. While we were sorting and packing, a green Missourian came along. He bothered around and asked questions and finally got some fire and touched off the spilled powder. It flashed over the ground and connected with that under the keg. The keg went rolling off across the plain at high speed. One mule bucked off his pack [in] the excitement. Mark told him that if he didn't leave he would kick him in half a minute. He left.
After we packed six of us traveled together. We three brothers, Mr. Melvany and two men from East St. Louis. We traveled about two hundred miles a week and rested on Sundays. Green River was the next bad river that we had to cross. It was swift, cold and deep with square banks. A horse or man couldn't swim very long in it. Our horses would swim part way across and then come back. Finally they they swam across but missed the landing place. They swam about a mile to where there was a gap in the bank and all got out, which was a great streak of luck as we thought they were going to drown. We went by Fort Bridger. Mr Bridger was an Indian Trader of great notoriety. He had built a fort two or three hundred miles west of Salt Lake. He seemed to be a nice shrewd man. We didn't see anyone around there except himself, his squaw and an Indian boy. He said he had a bunch of Indians hired to prepare and bring in buffalo robes and they were camped about forty miles southeast from them hunting buffaloes. A short time after that we left Fort Bridger, we came to the foothills of the Wasach Mountains. They ascend gradually on the east side but come down very steep on the west in to Salt Lake Valley. In crossing the Wasach Mountains we traveled through the deepest canyon on the whole trip. We could see young eagles on shelving rocks, hundreds of feet up the face of the wall. When we got to the summit we could see the Salt Lake Valley. It took til the next evening to get to the city. We stayed there three days and were treated well. They were glad to see emigrants for they were short of rations and had been since they first got to the valley. The emigrants had grub to spare, they had some small farms opened but the years harvest had not come off. They were very industrious, working every day at something. They had the Temple laid, some of the emigrants said that the Mormon boys sold their lariats in the day and stole them back in the night. I think there are some other boys that would do the same. We started north from the city and went around the Lake on the north side. The road was good and hot springs numerous. We had a fine view of the lake. There is a large island in the lake which the Indians and some White people have a superstitious fear of. I saw one man that had been on the island. He said there were a great many rattle snakes there and that you could see a rattle snake every few steps. The Mormons had made friends with the Indians in that part of the country. There was one small band of Utes that they had to fight. Soon after they went there, they killed nearly all the warriors, captured the squaws and children, took them home and divided them among the Mormon families for servants. They work well and pretended to be satisfied, but ran away the first chance they got. There was a large band of Snake Indians camping near us while we were in the city. They had been on bad terms with the Utes. One day while I was in the Indian camp a delegation of Utes came up to make a treaty. The squaws gathered up their children and left in a great hurry. We were at Salt Lake. On Sunday the Mormons had an open air meeting. Brigham Young preached a rattling red hot sermon. There were twelve women sat on a bench near the pulpit. A young man told me that there were Brigham's wives. He was said to have twelve wives at that time. After we rounded the lake we turned west over a country that had a great deal of small brush on it of various kinds, but none of it like the brush of Indiana. The ground was white with alkali and looked worthless. There were plenty of sage hens. Some of them as large as a small turkey, nearly black in color and very good eating.
Soon after we passed where the Nevada line is now, we came to the Humboldt River. We had not seen any signs of buffalo since we left Salt Lake and there were no live ones there now. The Indians said there had been a sleet storm eleven years before which covered the ground for two weeks and the buffaloes had all starved. It seemed as if this were so, for we saw plenty of old horns and bones along the road, but no fresh ones. Humboldt River runs west to where it spreads out and evaporates. This is in a great basin and all the rain that falls into the Great Basin has to evaporate to get away. The last three days we traveled along it, it seemed to grow smaller and to be sinking into the ground. About forty miles before we came to the lake, I stayed behind to hunt a mule which took most of the day. After they had gone ten miles Mark stopped to wait for me. It was moonlight at night and they were to camp close enough to the road for us to see them. Mark and I traveled most of the night and passed them without knowing it. The next day still thinking they were ahead we pushed on to the Sink. Not finding them there, we packed a bunch of grass on each mule and when night came we started across the desert which was sixty-five miles the way the road ran then. When we were about out forty miles the road forked. Each one looked plain and we didn't know which one to take, but that they came together further on. We took to the right which led into the Truckee River route. We traveled that night and the next day and at night were in about two miles of the river. There is a natural curiosity on the desert south of the road. About ten o'clock in the morning we saw steam like someone killing hogs. We sent over there and it turned out to be a geyser, but different from most geysers. There was a little round hill about six feet high and fifty yards across. There were about a dozen holes, eighteen inches in diameter, away down about one hundred feet, we could hear water boiling and about once in twenty minutes the water would come to the top and boil over. The water looked like bluing and was said to be poison. The other part of our company took the left turn, which went to the Carson River. They crossed the mountains more than fifty miles south of the Trucker route. There were four of them, Jonathan and the three men from St. Louis. Trucker River was the first water we came too, plenty of grass and the place looked fine. A man from New York got on his horse and traveled with us the rest of the way. He was an eccentric, disagreeable and cowardly man and seemed to be afraid all the time. We traveled up Truckee Canyon which in most places is about half a mile wide. The river is small and very crooked running first to one bluff and then to another. The trail crossed it thirty times. When we got to the summit of the Sierra Nevada Mountains , we had passed all the emigrants on the road, except a company of fur traders with about a dozen mules. One day when we were not far from the summit we lost the trail. There were mule tracks all around but not on the trail. We hid our mules and started out to hunt the trail. It was bushy and looked wild. The old man stayed with the mules. After awhile he got scared and started to come over to us. He came within forty yards of us without seeing us and hollered quite loud. We could not answer for laughing. He then yelled very loud and got off a couple of the most doleful yells that I had ever heard. He thought he was lost in a wild country. When we were about halfway through the canyon, one evening we saw tracks where there had been a band of Indians. We had fallen in with a party of four packers and thought we had better travel until after dark so they could not locate our camp. As luck would have it, we came to a camp of twelve men and camped with them and therefore were not molested. There was said to be a band of Utes in that part of the country. A few miles after we passed the summit we came to the place where the Donner party had been closed in, and so many of them starved to death in '46 Their camp was strung out along the road for three miles. The stumps were about twelve feet high, where they had cut the trees above the snow. At one place they had made winter quarters by the side of a fallen redwood, which was fifteen inches thick and leaning it up against a log. Redwood bark leaned up against a twelve foot log makes a good camp. The Donners went from McLain County, Illinois. I used to know some of their folks. The trail passed on the north side of Dormer Lake. Nothing of note happened on the west slope of the mountains, only it was a rough
road to travel. We saw but one Indian and he was cunning. He was not bothered with any apparel.
We got to the Johnson Ranch the fifteenth of August. It is noted for being the first place reached by the starving Donner party. At the Johnson Ranch there were some old adobe buildings which made it look as though it had been settled for a long time. A man by the name of Nichols was keeping it the. He had a store and stock ranch and there was a camp of half-civilized Indians. I recollect that he sold flour, sugar and bacon, all at the same price-$0.40 per pound. There was a boat landing on the Sacramento River near Sutters Fort about fifty-five miles from there, where he said they were landing supplies for the mines. They called it Barcadow [Note: embarcadero (Sacramento)]. The next evening, about an hour by sun, we walked every step of the way to Barcadow and got there the next morning by 10 o'clock. Our mules were thin and we could walk as far and fast and long as they could. We went to work and helped some men clear away the little sycamores and mount it on a frame of a Hotel. They bought the frame from a ship and gave them nine hundred dollars for it. It had been framed in Oregon and was the third frame building in the place. They paid us ten dollars per day and board and were glad to get help. There were about six hundred houses there all made of canvas. Lots of businesses were going on. More goods were going landed every day and gold suckers coming by land and by sea. Each day you could see that the town was bigger than it was the day before. About this time someone was heard to say Sacramento City and the name stayed. About August 10th Jonathan and the three men from St. Louis got there, they had come by the Carson River route and had a hard time of it. Four of their horses gave out on the desert, and in order to get any of them through they had to take the packer off and drive the last sixteen miles without a lot. Then they went back after the packs, the Indians had taken everything except one gun.
We started for the mines in a day or two. Went northeast about eighty miles and stopped on a stream that empties in the Yuba River from the south side. The first place we tried was a good place to work. The first pan of dirt was good.
A Time Line
1783 - Britain recognizes the independence of the United States at the Treaty of Paris.
1787 - The Continental Congress excludes slavery from the Northwest Territory.
1788 - French physicist Lagrange publishes his Analytical Mechanics.
1788 - Mozart composes 3 symphonies: E-flat, G minor and Jupiter in less than 7 weeks.
1789 - Washington is elected as the first U.S. president; John Adams becomes vice-president.
1789 - Mutinous sailors seize H.M.S. Bounty and take refuge on Pitcairn Island.
1790 - Leopold II succeeds Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor.
1790 - Philadelphia replaces New York as the temporary capital of the U.S.
1791 - Pierre Charles L'Enfant designs the new U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.
1791 - Toussaint l'Ouverture leads a slave revolt in Haiti against the French.
1792 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state of the Union.
1792 - Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
1792 - The National Convention proclaims France a Republic.
1793 - Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed; the Reign of Terror begins in France.
1794 - Militia under General Henry Lee suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania.
1795 - The British capture Cape Province (South Africa) from the Dutch.
1795 - Spain recognizes U.S. claims to West Florida (Mississippi).
1796 - English physician Edward Jenner develops vaccination against smallpox.
1797 - David Thompson surveys the Mississippi headwaters for the North West Company.
1798 - The territory of Mississippi becomes part of the United States.
1799 - The Rosetta Stone, the key to deciphering hieroglyphics, is discovered in Egypt.
1799 - The Russian-American Company is founded to administer the Alaskan fur trade.
1801 - Castlereagh secures passage of the Act of Union, which unites Britain and Ireland.
1802 - Napoleon is created First Consul for life.
1804 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin exploring the American north-west.
1804 - Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France.
1805 - The Shawnee Prophet, brother of Tecumseh, begins planning an Indian uprising.
1806 - Emperor Jacques I is assassinated; Haiti is divided between Christophe and Petion.
1806 - U.S. explorer Zebulon Pike is sent west to descend the Red River.
1807 - Beethoven completes his Fifth Symphony and begins the Sixth (Pastoral).
1808 - John Jacob Astor founds the American Fur Company.
1809 - Frenchman Nicolas Appert develops the first effective method for canning food.
1809 - John Stevens' steamboat the Phoenix makes the first ocean-going voyage.
1810 - American settlers rebel against the Spanish in West Florida.
1810 - Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla leads a rebellion against Spanish rule.
1811 - The building of the National Road, the first U.S. federal highway, begins in Maryland.
1813 - Oliver Hazard Perry's ships destroy the British fleet on Lake Erie.
1814 - Andrew Jackson annihilates the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
1814 - British forces burn Washington, D.C., but are repulsed at Fort McHenry.
1814 - Coalition armies invade France; Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to the island of Elba.
1817 - Construction of the Erie Canal begins in New York State.
1818 - Illinois is inaugurated as the 21st state of the Union.
1820 - English poet John Keats writes Ode To a Nightingale.
1820 - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley writes Prometheus Unbound.
1820 - Russian Admiral Fabian von Bellingshausen sights land in the Antarctic.
1820 - The first American missionaries are admitted to Hawaii.
1823 - James Fenimore Cooper publishes the first volume of The Leatherstocking Tales.
1823 - General Santa Anna leads a coup against Mexican Emperor Agustin I (Iturbide).
1826 - Felix Mendelssohn composes his overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream at age 17.
1829 - Louis Braille publishes his braille system of writing for the blind.
1830 - The Women's magazine Godey's Lady's Book is published in the U.S.
1831 - Cyrus McCormick invents a mechanical reaper.
1832 - George Sand (Aurore Dudevant) publishes her first novel Indiana.
1834 - American inventor Jacob Perkins patents the first practical ice-making machine.
1835 - American settlers begin the Texas Revolution against Mexican rule.
1835 - Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen publishes Tales Told for Children.
1836 - Texans under Sam Houston defeat Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River.
1836 - The Arc de Triomphe, the world's largest triumphal arch, is completed in Paris.
1837 - William IV dies; Victoria succeeds him as Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1838 - John Deere develops a steel-tipped plow capable of turning heavy prairie soil.
1838 - Samuel F.B. Morse develops the Morse code for electric telegraph systems.
1839 - Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt embarks on a concert tour of Europe.
1839 - The Opium Wars begin between Britain and China.
1841 - Edgar Allan Poe writes an early detective story The Murders in the Rue Morgue.
1842 - American explorer John C. Fremont begins surveying the Oregon Trail.
1842 - American showman P.T. Barnum discovers the 40-inch midget Tom Thumb.
1843 - Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard publishes Either/Or.
1844 - French author Alexandre Dumas (Dumas pere) publishes The Three Musketeers.
1845 - Failure of the potato crop leads to a famine in Ireland.
1846 - The border between the U.S. and Canada is established, settling the Oregon Question.
1847 - Maria Mitchell, the first woman astronomer in America, discovers a new comet.
1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratifies the cession of California and New Mexico.
1848 - The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill begins the California gold rush.
1848 - The first U.S. women's rights assembly meets at the Seneca Falls Convention.
1849 - Amelia Bloomer publicizes bloomers (baggy trousers for women) in the Lily magazine.
The Northwest Territory, officially called The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was established by the Continental Congress on July 13, 1787, by the Northwest Ordinance. The region was later called the Old Northwest. Comprising the land west of Pennsylvania between the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers ceded to the U.S. government by individual states in the 1780s, the territory was later divided into the new states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. The policies that were devised for the sale of land and for the government in this region established precedents for the settlement of the public domain across the whole of the United States. The Land Ordinance of 1785 had provided for the survey and sale of mile-square sections of land. After the first sales, in the area that is now eastern Ohio, the federal government began to allow land companies to purchase huge areas farther down the Ohio River. Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 to provide for the government of the entire region. The Ordinance was based in part on a plan
drawn up by a committee headed by Thomas JEFFERSON in 1784. It stated that no fewer than 3 nor more than 5 states were eventually to be formed from the region and set down an orderly procedure for the creation of these new states. In the first stage the entire Northwest Territory would be ruled by a governor, a secretary, and three judges appointed by Congress; in the second stage, when the free adult males residing in one of the territories numbered 5,000, they could elect a territorial legislature and send a nonvoting delegate to Congress; and when the population of any territory reached 60,000, it would be eligible to enter the Union as a new state equal to the original states. Slavery was prohibited in the territory.
In 1788 the OHIO COMPANY OF ASSOCIATES established Marietta, on the Ohio, and a few groups of settlers followed in the late 1780s and early 1790s. The main settlement of the region began after Gen. Anthony WAYNE's victory over the Indians at FALLEN TIMBERS in 1794.
Ohio was the first state admitted (1803) to the Union from the Northwest Territory. U.S. control of the less populous frontier areas was challenged by the presence of British trading posts in the Northwest and was firmly established only in the aftermath of the War of 1812. Reginald Horsman
Bibliography: Horsman, Reginald, The Frontier in the Formative Years (1970); Onuf, Peter S., Statehood and Union: A History of the Northwest Ordinance (1987); Philbrick, Francis S., The Rise of the West, 1754-1830 (1965); Scheiber, H. N., The Old Northwest (1969)
Copyright 1999-2001 Linda Manlove; all rights reserved. For personal use only. Commercial use of the information contained in these pages is strictly prohibited without prior permission. If copied, this copyright must appear with the information.
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